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首先茶的分類其實有太多各種不同標準不同的區分法。一般也最常見的方式,是依發酵度與製法,分為六大茶類。而紅茶,便是這六大茶類中的一種。認識六大茶類,便相對初步認識了紅茶:

綠茶:製作時不經過任何發酵過程、採摘後直接殺菁、揉捻、乾燥而成的茶。滋味清新鮮醇,清爽宜人。因工法不同,又可分為以鍋炒而成的炒菁綠茶,比方1.龍井、2.碧螺春,以及以高溫蒸汽蒸煮的蒸菁綠茶,比方日本的煎茶、玉露,前者香氣濃、後者有新鮮新綠感。


黃茶:製作方式近似綠茶,但過程中經過悶黃,使茶葉與茶湯的顏色呈黃的微發酵的茶,發酵度約1020%,滋味清香甘甜,如君山銀針、蒙頂黃牙等都是知名的茶款。黃茶是中國特產,湖南嶽陽為中國黃茶之鄉,其餘產茶國無商業化生產。黃茶的品質特點是“黃葉黃湯”, 其按鮮葉老嫩芽葉大小又分為黃芽茶、黃小茶和黃大茶。黃芽茶主要有君山銀針、蒙頂黃芽和霍山黃芽。


白茶:把葉片採摘下來後只經過輕微的、約1030%程度的發酵、不經過任何炒菁或揉捻動作,便直接曬乾或烘乾的輕發酵茶。帶有細緻的茸毛,滋味清淡爽滑,非常獨特。特產於中國福建一帶,如白毫銀針、壽眉牡丹等都是知名的茶款。


青茶:又稱烏龍茶。發酵度約為2060%,是介於綠茶與紅茶之間的半發酵茶類。滋味變化多端,兼容綠茶的清綠新爽與紅茶的醇厚甘美,常帶有如花香、果香、穀香等多元豐富的香氣,是台灣最知名的茶類。知名茶款除烏龍外還有包種、鐵觀音、水仙、武夷茶。


紅茶:發酵度達8090%的全發酵茶。製作過程不經殺菁,而是直接萎凋、揉切,然後進行完整發酵,使茶葉中所含的茶多酚氧化成為茶紅素,因而形成紅茶所特有暗紅色茶葉、紅色茶湯。(然必須注意的是,在英文中,紅茶並不稱「紅」茶,而稱black tea想喝看看?


黑茶:屬後發酵茶。製造上是在殺菁、揉捻、曬乾後,再經過堆積存放的過程(稱為「渥堆」),使之產生再次發酵,故而茶葉與茶湯顏色更深、滋味也更濃郁厚實。如普洱茶、湖南黑茶等都是著名茶款。

Post Author: kevin

3 Replies to “認識紅茶?我們先來看看茶的分類”

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